BMW 3 series E30
Since 1983-1994 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. The engine
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. A running gear
+ 12. A body
+ 13. An electric equipment
- 14. A good advice
14.2. Changed numbers
14.3. Purchase of the old car or a mysterious set of figures and letters
14.4. Durability of the car
14.5. About parallelism of bridges of the car and the trailer
14.6. Preparation of the car for winter
14.7. A rule 35
14.8. A choice of the second-hand car
14.9. Engine oils
14.10. That it is necessary to know, changing oil
14.11. Occurrence in deposit oil
14.12. Whether it is possible to mix import oils?
14.13. "Eats" much, but silently goes
14.14. It is more likely live, than it is dead …
14.15. It is not got - a good advice
14.16. Visit to car-care centre
14.17. A gear belt for a mechanism drive timing
14.18. Deterioration of pistons
14.20. Bearings of engines
14.21. Engine pollution
14.22. As the conditioner works and what to do, if it has failed
14.23. The conditioner: not only "pluses", but also "minuses"
14.24. Rules of service of the conditioner
14.25. It is not necessary to stir antifreeze with antifreeze …
14.26. That it is necessary to know at purchase of the air filter
14.27. An engine overheat
14.28. That it is necessary to know to the owner of the car with инжекторным the engine
14.29. The accumulator
14.30. Possible malfunctions of the storage battery
14.31. What to do with the failed generator
14.32. The belt is guilty, and we blame the generator
14.33. The catalyst
14.34. Three in one - or how to save the catalyst
14.36. Features of operation of brake system
14.37. Malfunctions of brake system
14.38. Brake liquids
14.39. ABS: a natural choice
14.40. Wheel disks
14.41. We update wheel disks
14.42. The scheme of marks of an automobile tyre
14.43. Metal corrosion
14.44. An automake-up
14.45. What creaks?
14.46. The hatch
14.47. A safety pillow: troubles or pleasures?
14.48. We fit well?
14.49. Anticreeping "immunodeficiency"
14.50. Why headlights grow dull
14.52. About correct adjustment of headlights
14.53. The electric motor
14.54. From change of places "composed" varies nothing?
Whether all is perfectly in order with the car engine? Can it is time save money on carrying out of computer diagnostics, and even on repair? To answer these questions to you some councils of the autoengineer will help, it is a lot of years engaged in repair of import cars.
Before addressing to the doctor, each of us is engaged in self-diagnostics. Thus we do not do to ourselves рентгеноскопию, we do not use the electrocardiograph and other sophisticated devices. Simply we feel a forehead, we examine a throat, we listen, whether шкворчит in a breast, whether пучит a stomach, whether корежит a waist. From devices traditionally we use thermometers and, maybe, a watch at pulse measurement.
Here so, in a simple way, we define, whether the organism normally functions. And after all it turns out!
The car engine – the same organism. For its exact diagnosing and treatment there are many artful devices, adaptations and tools. Various exact techniques and the receptions demanding thin knowledge of the internal device are used. We plan to tell about them in detail in the near future.
To begin with we suggest to master more simple for understanding of a thing.
Let's try understand, on what it is necessary to pay attention, maintaining the car: that it is necessary to feel where to look, where to listen and, maybe, even to smell, to understand, how the engine feels. Do not wish to study together with us – get from a purse one hundred dollars and go on computer diagnostics. Automobile "health services" paid!
Present that you the kind doctor. Having entered into chamber (garage), approach to the patient (car), necessarily greet, tender, calming words tell to it some and suggest to undress to a belt (open a cowl).
Begin with external survey of the engine. Remember that nothing reflects internal well-being how pleasant, well-groomed appearance radiating with health.
Strong general impurity of the engine, no less than presence of intensive local leaks, on the contrary, testifies about reeled health. If in the evening, leaving the car, you have providently enclosed a newspaper blank leaf under the engine, take out it and examine. Leakings of oil and other operational liquids for a night will leave traces on which you can establish sources of leaks on the newspaper and define their intensity. The it above, the it is necessary to take measures on elimination of malfunctions more likely.
The following step – check and finishing to norm of level of all operational liquids. First of all us interest engine oil and охлаждаюшая a liquid (antifreeze) as their lack is most strongly reflected in engine technical characteristics.
It would be desirable to remind and about they be believe, I do not joke – that is necessary to be convinced available fuel of a tank. Practice shows that some inattentive drivers nearly to death torture a starter and the storage battery, having forgotten that before it is necessary to feed and give to drink the good fellow, and then – on a shovel and in the furnace.
At the same time check up a tension drivers belts of hinged units of the engine (the pump of system of cooling, the generator, the pump of the hydraulic booster of a wheel, the conditioner). Be convinced that belts do not sag and are not torn off. If everything is all right, shake off trousers and – for a wheel.
Before engine start
Do not hurry up at once to start the engine. Haste here to what! In the beginning turn a key in position "ignition"... As a rule, thus on the panel of devices of all modern cars a number of bulbs lights up. At the given stage us two especially interest.
The first – a bulb of emergency pressure of the oil, the second – a control lamp подзаряда the accumulator which specifies in readiness of the generator to get into gear after engine start. Both at the included ignition even before engine start should burn with bright red light. And if one of them does not burn? If the bulb подзаряда was not lighted, these are half-troubles if the bulb of emergency pressure of oil does not light up is disturbing "звоночек". Be attentive, you have lost the control over greasing system! Pressure of oil in the engine – the basic indicator of serviceability of the unit. Without supervising pressure of oil, you risk to "have" major repairs of the engine with all consequences following from it.
The cause of defect consists or in bad contact the plug-gauge, or in the gauge. To search for the gauge, as a rule, follows around the oil filter. Malfunction needs to be eliminated. Only after you were convinced that everything is all right, start the engine.
The serviceable engine with well adjusted systems of giving of fuel and ignition and the serviceable storage battery is started from one attempt within 3–5 seconds. Stably arising problems with "cold" start-up testify to malfunctions. We will assume, we have avoided it, and the engine was started...
We look at the panel of devices. Two bulbs about which there was a speech above, are obliged to go out.
After the lapse of several minutes once again try to start the engine. In case of absence of pressure of oil it is necessary to search for the malfunction reason.
The possible reasons: low level of oil, is faulty the gauge of pressure of oil; the grid маслоприемника the oil pump is hammered; the oil pump is faulty; the big deterioration radical and шатунных bearings of a cranked shaft.
If pressure of oil is perfectly in order, we start engine inspection in a warming up mode.
Engine warming up
Frequency of turns of not heated-up engine approximately in 1,5 times exceeds passport frequency of idling, a component usually 700-900 rpm, and should decrease smoothly in process of growth of temperature of the engine.
After the lapse of 7–10 minutes from the moment of start-up the engine temperature should reach level of an order 80 ° With and be stabilised (as well as single turns).
If your car is equipped by a tachometre and стрелочным the device showing temperature of the cooling liquid, this process is easy for checking.
When warming up proceeds under the above described scenario, the system of idling and system of cooling of the engine work normally.
If the temperature of the engine does not reach the necessary level the valve-thermostat, most likely, is guilty. The reasons of an overheat of the engine much more and they are reflected in the technical inquiry.
After the engine will enough get warm, and idling turns are stabilised (you learn about it from indications of control devices), time will come to listen, as the motor sings.
Beautiful, sonorous voice – a healthy organism
Doctors assure that in relation to the person this statement is completely fair. The same it is possible to tell and about the engine.
The serviceable engine publishes a uniform rumble and "ticks", as hours. Some masters say that he "whispers". Despite figurativeness of expressions, you have for certain understood that they mean.
If the engine works non-uniformly, with failures, periodically vibrates, know: it testifies to its malfunction. Sometimes malfunctions – a consequence of deterioration of details of the engine and compression falling in cylinders, but more often the reasons are негерметичность the inlet path, the littered air filter, failures in work of system of ignition and fuel system. It would be desirable to stop on those cases when the engine as speak, "троит", that is one of cylinders does not work.
Using a method of a serial detachment of high-voltage wires from spark plugs, to find "saboteur" simply. As soon as you will get on the faulty cylinder, the engine kind of work will not change.
Frequently the cause of defect can be defined having examined a spark plug. It allows to learn a lot of the interesting engine about a condition.
It is necessary to mention extraneous noise and knocks. At once we will make a reservation that the similar method of diagnostics is "the higher pilotage" and on forces not all to professionals.
Motorists should mean that any sharp metal sounds testify about неиправности. If they are "published" by hinged units (the generator, a pomp, the hydraulic booster) are half-troubles. To define "originator" of noise it is possible, consistently removing приводные belts of these units. If after removal of the next belt the extraneous sound has disappeared, shake a corresponding pulley for definition radial and axial люфта bearings. More often they are disturbers of calmness.
With much bigger troubles the knocks which are starting with a belly of the motor threaten. To them listen on various power setting by means of an automobile stethoscope or if it is not present, a dry stick in diameter about 10 mm from firm wood (it press to a cheekbone below an ear lobe). Such way possible to reveal defects газораспределительного the mechanism, tsilindro-piston group, krivoshipno-shatunnogo the mechanism.
Once again we will underline that to make the diagnosis, ear for music insufficiently, it is necessary to have professional experience and excellent knowledge "матчасти".
A sound mind in a sound body
Diagnostic inspection would be incomplete without the analysis дымности a car exhaust. It is already enough heated-up, so it is a high time to approach to its "loin" and to glance to a horse "under a tail".
The exhaust of the serviceable engine is almost colourless. The exhaust pipe leaves hardly distinguishable easy smoke of the white colour which intensity amplifies by sharp pressing a gas pedal.
In frosty weather the serviceable car reserves dense enough clubs of white steam (not to confuse to a smoke!), testifying to full combustion of fuel.
Long to inhale exhaust gases – is more expensive. We suppress the engine. But it yet the ending. It is necessary to survey an internal surface of a stopper маслозаливной mouths. Presence on it of traces made foam эмульсии lurid colour – very disturbing symptom speaking about infiltration in oil of antifreeze. Having uncovered a broad tank or a radiator, survey antifreeze. Attention: to avoid a trauma, to do it it is necessary on the cooled down engine! An oil film on an antifreeze surface, the same as the made foam engine oil – harbingers of urgent repair of the engine.
Here, perhaps, and all. We completely surveyed "patient", having walked literally from a tip of a nose to a tail. Also used at survey not expensive, inaccessible to the majority of motorists the equipment, and that is given us by nature: sight, hearing, sense of smell and, certainly, mysterious "grey substance".
The analysis дымности an exhaust
Oily ring corbel in width of 6-8 mm on an external surface of an exhaust pipe of the car ("mourning ободок") – a consequence of the raised expense of oil. Engine major repairs are inevitable.
Smoke of black colour
Sign of incomplete combustion of fuel. The power supply system prepares very rich mix and requires adjustment.
Smoke of a grey (violet) shade
Sign of the raised expense of oil. The engine demands replacement маслосъемных caps or repair of tsilindro-piston group.
Dense white smoke
Sign of a burn-out of a lining of a head of the block of cylinders of the engine. The cooling liquid gets to the combustion chamber.
Smoke with a smell of exhaust gases from the removed branch pipe of system of ventilation картера (сапуна) the engine
Sign of break of the fulfilled gases in oil картер because of the increased backlashes in tsilindro-piston group.
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