- The maintenance instruction
Cars of mark Audi A3/S3 - the summary
Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
Поддомкрачивание and towage
Start of the engine from the auxiliary power supply
Checks of readiness of the car to operation
Diagnostics of malfunctions of knots and car systems
Controls and receptions of safe operation
Arrangement of controls and devices
Keys, locks of a body with uniform management and the security alarm system
Electric window raiser and rear-view mirrors
Safety systems. Transportation of children
Adjustable steering column
The device of the acoustic help at a parking
The lock of ignition and engine start
Control and measuring devices. Precautionary and diagnostic systems
The travelling computer
Switches and switches
Screen wipers and washer
Ventilation, heater and the conditioner of air of salon
The podemno-sdvizhnaja panel крыши*
Salon and luggage carrier illumination
The salon equipment
Luggage carrier on a roof
Features of driving of the car and auxiliary systems (ABS, EDS, ASR, ESP)
Fuelling and emergency unlocking of a cover refuelling лючка
Readjustment of headlights
The first-aid set
Sign on an emergency stop
The complete set of the tool and jack
+ Current leaving and service
+ The engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system and release of the fulfilled gases
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Manual box of a gear change
+ Automatic transmission and models with a full drive
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
In sale the set химикалиев, oils and the greasings necessary during performance of procedures of routine maintenance and car repairs arrives. The wide spectrum of products of the chemical and oil-extracting industry – from cleaning structures and solvents, to oils, greasings and aerosols for protection of rubber and plastic components of the car here enters.
The cleaner for carburettors and air заслонок represents strong solvent of pitches, a deposit and coal adjournment. The most part of cleaners for carburettors leave after itself dry type greasing film which does not harden and not засмаливается eventually. In a kind of formation of such film the given cleaners are not recommended to be used for washing of electric components.
The cleaner for brake systems is applied to removal of traces of greasing and a brake liquid from surfaces of components of brake system where absolute cleanliness is a paramount condition of efficiency of functioning. The cleaner does not leave any traces and in many cases eliminates the squeal of brake mechanisms caused by pollution of their components.
The cleaner for electric components promotes elimination окисных films, traces of corrosion and a deposit from contact surfaces without infringement электропроводности. Also it can be used for cleaning of spark plugs, jets of the carburettor, regulators of pressure and other knots where full clearing of oil and fat is desirable.
Влагопоглотители serve for removal of water and a moisture from surfaces of such electric components as the generator, a pressure regulator, the assembly block of safety locks, electric sockets, etc. Vlagopoglotiteli usually are not current-carrying, not causing corrosion and not inflammable.
Обезжириватели represent superstrong solvents and serve for removal of traces of greasing from external surfaces of the engine and chassis components. Are issued in the form of aerosols or are put by a brush or a brush and, depending on type, are washed off either water, or solvent.
| ||Card of viscosity of impellent oils |
And all-weather oils with the raised antifrictional properties, specification VW 500 00
In all-weather oils, specification VW 501 01
All-weather oils, specification API–SF or SG
Turbodiesel – all-weather oils specification VW 505 00
Impellent (motor) oils represent specially developed structures for greasing of internal components of the engine. Usually contain wide any spectrum of the additives serving for prevention of foaming and corrosion. Impellent oils are issued various degree of viscosity – from 5 to 80. Necessity of application of oil of this or that grade is usually defined by environmental conditions and requirements of the concrete engine. Liquid (easy) oils are usually applied in the conditions of a frigid climate and at insignificant loadings on the engine. Heavy (viscous) oils are used in hot conditions and at the raised loadings on the engine. All-weather oils possess characteristics both easy, and heavy oils and usually have designations from 5W–20 to 20W–50.
Qualities of impellent oils
All-weather oils under standards VW 501 01 and 505 00 are rather inexpensive oils with following qualities:
– All-the-year-round use in temperate climate zones;
– Excellent washing properties;
– Good greasing ability at all temperatures and engine loadings
– High stability of initial properties for a long time.
All-weather oils with the improved antifrictional qualities under standard VW 500 00 have, except that, additional advantages:
– All-the-year-round use almost at all possible temperatures of external air;
– Small losses of capacity of the engine on a friction;
– Simplification of cold start of the engine – even at very low temperatures.
Seasonal oils owing to specific vjazkostno-temperature properties inherent in them usually cannot be used all year long. Therefore these oils should be applied only in extreme climatic zones.
At use of all-weather oils of class SAE 5W–30, it is necessary to avoid long work of the engine with high frequency of rotation and constant big loading on the engine. These restrictions are not valid for all-weather oils with the improved antifrictional qualities.
Additives to impellent oils
It is not necessary to add any additives reducing losses on a friction, to impellent oils.
Mixing of oils
This and questions similar to it interest many motorists. The answer to the first – unfortunately, no even if it is oils of firms “with a world name” (Shell, Mobil, British Petroleum). Each firm makes commodity oils, adding to an oil basis the whole complex of the additives which chemical compound is kept a secret. Therefore many the qualitative oils of identical appointment made under requirements concerning ekspluatatsionno-technical properties of international classification API and European specification SSMS-ASEA, but on technologies of various firms, at mixing are capable to create mixes of poor quality owing to interaction and взаимоуничтожения additives, that is "incompatibility" of additives. Oils of different firms are interchangeable, about possibility of use of such oils developers of engines often specify. But it does not mean that they can be mixed. Classification API and specification АСЕА assume obligatory identical test methods (laboratory, bench, impellent etc.) oils of different firms. At desire (or necessities) developers can enter additional tests (or more severe constraints) to these classifications.
The same concerns mixing of mineral or synthetic oils (sometimes – even one firm). Oils synthetic can have structure of hydrocarbonic character (in such cases of oil of one firm it is possible to mix, on what the firm the manufacturer of oil and makes recommendations for what it bears responsibility), other chemical compound. Unfortunately, cases when at mixing of oils their quality worsens are frequent. As a result of it can "begin to knock" the engine as the mix of incompatible oils turns to "jelly".
Even more negative answer to a question on possibility of mixing of import and domestic oils, especially what are made with the additive of "domestic" additives. Neither the seller, nor the consumer do not know structure of additives which are in oils. Some oils of "a domestic origin” are made by the "firms" which do not have even elementary knowledge on mineral oil. Sometimes such "experts" use the fulfilled oils (even without appropriate regeneration) to manufacture of "commodity". Thus and corresponding quality. Therefore concerning possibility of mixing of oils it is necessary to give councils very cautiously!
No "cleaners" are capable to raise OCTANESое gasoline number. For this purpose use special additives – antidetonators which add in the course of gasoline manufacturing at petrofactories. The excessive deposit in the combustion chamber can be the detonation reason (metal knock in an engine operating time) and калильного ignitions (continuations of work of the engine at the switched off ignition).
Compression increase in system “at introduction of some additives” occurs not for the account вязкостных additives as they do not incorporate them, and for other reasons.
To reduce oil charcoal fumes in the old engine and to raise a compression in cylinders at the expense of use высоковязкостных oils it is inexpedient, as it will lead to only time improvement. Further engine repair will cost dearer.
The reason of knocks of the engine is its deterioration. Repair with the subsequent use of high-quality oil therefore will more cheaply manage. It is possible to "reduce" backlashes additives, but it is necessary to understand expediency of it not to do much harm to the engine.
Some words apropos “ship oils” and possibility of their use in automobile diesel engines.
Special ship oils for diesel engines concern group E, for example, М–16Е30, М16Е60, intended for малооборотных the diesel engines working on высокосерном viscous fuel – black oil. These oils have tehniko-operational properties (quality indicators), qualities of oils of automobile diesel engines different from indicators, therefore their use in automobile diesel engines it is impossible. There are ship oils of group D, for example, М–10 ДЦЛ20, М–14ДЦЛ20, М–14ДЦЛ30 which are used in the diesel engines working on высокосерном fuel. Oils waterproof, also have the raised alkaline number and high зольность. For automobile diesel engines it leads to the raised deterioration which can not pay off in due course free oil. Oil М–16ДР for ship diesel engines which work on дистиллятном fuel with the raised viscosity compared with viscosity automobile and the maintenance of sulphur to 0.5 %, can be used in automobile diesel engines in the summer (for heavy cargo, instead of cars).
It is necessary to take for a rule: to use high-quality oil of one mark corresponding to the engine (on classification) and not to risk to mix it with same synthetic (or semisynthetic) oil. The engine will thank for it reliable work. Do not buy oil privately as packing is easy for forging.
Transmissionnoe oil is developed for application in differentials, transmissions, and other knots where stability to influence of heats is required.
Greasing for components of the chassis and bearings of wheels represents the dense greasing applied in knots, subject to the raised loadings and a friction, such as bearings of wheels, spherical support of a suspension bracket, tips of steering draughts and карданные hinges.
High-temperature greasing for bearings of wheels is capable to resist to influence of the heats arising in bearings of wheels of cars, equipped with disk brake mechanisms. Usually contains дисульфид the molybdenum, being greasing substance of dry type.
White greasing (циатим) represents the dense greasing put on metal surfaces contacting among themselves in places where there are problems with the raised humidifying. Remains soft both at low, and at heats, it is not washed away and it is not diluted by water.
Assembly greasing represents special greasing, for application in the conditions of high pressures, usually contains molybdenum and is used for greasing of the knots subject to raised loadings (such as radical шатунные bearings and working ledges of cams) before the first start of the engine after major repairs end.
Silicone greasings are applied to protection of rubber, plastic, vinyl and nylon components.
Graphite greasings serve for application there where oil cannot be used in a kind of problems with pollution (for example, in locks). Dry graphite perfectly greases metal details, preventing influence on them of a moisture, acids and other aggressive pollution. Greasing is electrowire and does not break contact in such knots, as for example the ignition lock.
Молибденсодержащие getting structures are applied to simplification отдавания "the become attached" fixture, and also for greasing of fixture in order to avoid its corrosion in the future.
Teploprovodnaja greasing is not electrowire and serves for installation of electronic modules of ignition from which intensive heat removal is required.
Hermetic RTV is most widely applied прокладочным hermetic. It is made on the basis of silicon, stiffens on air, provides hermetic sealing, gluing, is waterproof, fills defects of surfaces, remains elastic, it is not compressed and does not sit down, it acts rather easily in film and applied in addition practically to all linings on knots where temperatures do not exceed average values.
Anaerobnyj hermetic unlike hermetic RTV can be applied not only in addition to linings, but also to formation of those. Remains elastic, it is steady against influence of solvents and well fills roughnesses of surfaces. The basic difference from hermetic RTV consists in hardening conditions. If hermetic RTV starts to stiffen after hit on air анаэробный hermetic rises only in absence of air. It means that hardening of such hermetic occurs only after assemblage of components and their dense pressing to each other.
Hermetic for pipes and carving connections is applied to hermetic sealing штуцерных connections of hydraulic, pneumatic and vacuum lines. It is usually made on the basis of teflon компаунда and it is delivered in the form of the aerosols put like a paint of liquids or in the form of a tape (ФУМ).
Antitaking компаунд serves for the prevention “прикипания”, corrosion, jamming and cold приваривания fixture. High-temperature antitaking hermetics usually are made on a basis медьсодержащих or graphite greasings and used in fixture of system of release and a final collector.
Анаэробные taking компаунды serve for prevention spontaneous отдавания fixture under the influence of vibrations and stiffen only after installation in absence of contact to air. Taking компаунды average capacity are applied to fixing of small fixture (nuts, bolts, screws) which are subject regular отдаванию further. High-power компаунды are usually used for blocking of large fixture, отдавание which it is not made on a regular basis.
Additives to oil serve for change of chemical properties of oil without change of its viscosity for the purpose of decrease in an internal friction in the engine. It is necessary to notice that the majority of the firms-manufacturers which are letting out engine oils, warn against use of any additives to them.
Additives to fuel carry out at once some functions, depending on the chemical compound. Usually contain the solvents promoting a conclusion шлама and removal of a deposit from internal surfaces of the carburettor and components of system of injection of fuel and an inlet path. Besides, application of such additives promotes removal of the coal adjournment formed on walls of chambers of combustion. The structure of some additives includes the substances serving for greasing of components of the top part of a head of cylinders (клапанного the mechanism, piston rings), others promote removal of a condensate from walls of a fuel tank.
The brake liquid – represents specially developed structure, capable to resist to influence of heats and the pressure arising in brake system. It is not necessary to suppose contact of a brake liquid to the painted surfaces of the car and open sites of a body. It is necessary to hold a brake liquid in tightly closed container in order to avoid hit in it of a moisture (a liquid very much гигроскопична) and a dirt.
During car operation the brake liquid takes away a certain quantity of water from air. Too big maintenance of water in a brake liquid can cause finally corrosion of details of working brake system. Besides, thus the temperature of boiling of a brake liquid essentially goes down.
Therefore it is necessary to change time in two years a brake liquid!
At very old brake liquid it is possible, at the big loading on working brake system, occurrence of vials of steam in system. It negatively influences an overall performance of working brake system and, thereby, on traffic safety.
It is necessary to apply only the recommended brake liquid (the specification under the standard of USA FMVSS 116 DOT 4).
Glue for fastening of sealing strips кузовных apertures as it is clear from its name, serves for fastening of sealing strips of apertures of doors, windows and covers of luggage spaces. It can be applied to fixing of elements of internal furnish.
The anticorrosive covering for the car bottom represents гудронообразный the structure made on an oil basis and serves for a sheeting of metal surfaces, preventing their corrosion. Besides, carries out function of sound insulation of salon.
Воски and polyroles are applied to protection of the painted surfaces against environment influences. Use of various type восков and polyroles can demand various type of a paint. The structure of some polyroles includes the abrasive or chemical additives serving for removal of an external layer of oxides (tarnishing) from painted surfaces of old cars. Recently in the market are widely presented any polyroles not containing wax which structure includes set of chemical additives, such as polymers or substances on a silicon basis. Such polyroles usually are put and keep longer usual (wax) is easier.
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